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Senin, 08 September 2008

Using Peer-to-Peer Data Routing for Infrastructure-based Wireless Networks

Authors: Sethuram Balaji Kodeswaran, Olga Vladi Ratsimor, Anupam Joshi, Tim Finin, and Yelena Yesha

Book Title: First IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications

Date: March 18, 2003

Abstract: A mobile ad-hoc network is an autonomous system of mobile routers that are self-organizing and completely decentralized with no requirements for dedicated infrastructure support. Wireless Infrastructure in terms of base stations is often available in many popular areas offering high-speed data connectivity to a wired network. In this paper, we describe an approach where infrastructure components utilize passing by mobile nodes to route data to other devices that are out of range. In our scheme, base stations track user mobility and determine data usage patterns of users as they pass by. Based on this, base stations predict the future data needs for a passing mobile device. These base stations then collaborate (over the wired network) to identify other mobile devices with spare capacity whose routes intersect that of a needy device and use these carriers to transport the needed data. When such a carrier meets a needy device, they form ad hoc peer-to-peer communities to transfer this data. In this paper, we describe the motivation behind our approach and the different component interactions. We present the results of simulation work that we have done to validate the viability of our approach. We also describe, Numi, our framework for supporting collaborative infrastructure and ad hoc computing along with a sample application built on top of this highlighting the benefits of our proposed approach.

What's New in Firefox 3

Firefox 3 Beta 2 is a developer preview release of Mozilla's next generation Firefox browser and is being made available for testing purposes only.

These beta releases are targeted to Web developers and our testing community to gain feedback before advancing to the next stage in the release process. The final version of Firefox 3 will be released when we qualify the product as fully ready for our users. Users of the latest released version of Firefox should not expect their add-ons to work properly with this beta.

Much of the work leading up to this beta has been around developing the infrastructure to support a bunch of exciting new features. With this second beta, you'll get a taste of what's coming in Firefox 3, but there's still more to come, and much of what you'll see is still a bit rough around the edges.

Please see below for an extensive list of features and enhancements found in Firefox 3 Beta 2, as well as known issues and frequently asked questions.

As always, we appreciate your feedback either through this feedback form or by filing a bug in Bugzilla.

What's New in Firefox 3

Firefox 3 is based on the new Gecko 1.9 Web rendering platform, which has been under development for the past 28 months and includes nearly 2 million lines of code changes, fixing more than 11,000 issues. Gecko 1.9 includes some major re-architecting for performance, stability, correctness, and code simplification and sustainability. Firefox 3 has been built on top of this new platform resulting in a more secure, easier to use, more personal product with a lot under the hood to offer website and Firefox add-on developers.

[Improved in Beta 2!] Firefox 3 Beta 2 includes approximately 900 improvements over the previous beta, including fixes for stability, performance, memory usage, platform enhancements and user interface improvements. Many of these improvements were based on community feedback from the previous beta.

More Secure
  • One-click site info: Click the site favicon in the location bar to see who owns the site. Identity verification is prominently displayed and easier to understand. In later versions, Extended Validation SSL certificate information will be displayed.
  • Malware Protection: malware protection warns users when they arrive at sites which are known to install viruses, spyware, trojans or other malware. You can test it here (note: our blacklist of malware sites is not yet activated).
  • New Web Forgery Protection page: the content of pages suspected as web forgeries is no longer shown. You can test it here.
  • New SSL error pages: clearer and stricter error pages are used when Firefox encounters an invalid SSL certificate.
  • Add-ons and Plugin version check: Firefox now automatically checks add-on and plugin versions and will disable older, insecure versions.
  • Secure add-on updates: to improve add-on update security, add-ons that provide updates in an insecure manner will be disabled.
  • Anti-virus integration: Firefox will inform anti-virus software when downloading executables.
  • Vista Parental Controls: Firefox now respects the Vista system-wide parental control setting for disabling file downloads.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Effective top-level domain (eTLD) service better restricts cookies and other restricted content to a single domain.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Better protection against cross-site JSON data leaks.
Easier to Use
  • Easier password management: an information bar replaces the old password dialog so you can now save passwords after a successful login.
  • Simplified add-on installation: the add-ons whitelist has been removed making it possible to install extensions from third-party sites in fewer clicks.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] New Download Manager: the revised download manager makes it much easier to locate downloaded files, and displays where a file came from.
  • Resumable downloading: users can now resume downloads after restarting the browser or resetting your network connection.
  • Full page zoom: from the View menu and via keyboard shortcuts, the new zooming feature lets you zoom in and out of entire pages, scaling the layout, text and images.
  • Tab scrolling and quickmenu: tabs are easier to locate with the new tab scrolling and tab quickmenu.
  • Save what you were doing: Firefox will prompt users to save tabs on exit.
  • Optimized Open in Tabs behavior: opening a folder of bookmarks in tabs now appends the new tabs rather than overwriting.
  • Location and Search bar size can now be customized with a simple resizer item.
  • Text selection improvements: multiple text selections can be made with Ctrl/Cmd; double-click drag selects in "word-by-word" mode; triple-clicking selects a paragraph.
  • Find toolbar: the Find toolbar now opens with the current selection.
  • Plugin management: users can disable individual plugins in the Add-on Manager.
  • Integration with Vista: Firefox's menus now display using Vista's native theme.
  • Integration with the Mac: Firefox now uses the OS X spellchecker and supports Growl for notifications of completed downloads and available updates.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Integration with Linux: Firefox's default icons, buttons, and menu styles now use the native GTK theme.
More Personal
  • Star button: quickly add bookmarks from the location bar with a single click; a second click lets you file and tag them.
  • Tags: associate keywords with your bookmarks to sort them by topic.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Location bar & auto-complete: type in all or part of the title, tag or address of a page to see a list of matches from your history and bookmarks; a new display makes it easier to scan through the matching results and find that page you're looking for.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Smart Bookmarks Folder: quickly access your recently bookmarked and tagged pages, as well as your more frequently visited pages with the new smart bookmarks folder on your bookmark toolbar.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Places Organizer: view, organize and search through all of your bookmarks, tags, and browsing history with multiple views and smart folders to store your frequent searches.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Web-based protocol handlers: web applications, such as your favorite webmail provider, can now be used instead of desktop applications for handling mailto: links from other sites. Similar support is available for other protocols (Web applications will have to first enable this by registering as handlers with Firefox).
  • Easy to use Download Actions: a new Applications preferences pane provides a better UI for configuring handlers for various file types and protocol schemes.
Improved Platform for Developers
  • New graphics and font handling: new graphics and text rendering architectures in Gecko 1.9 provides rendering improvements in CSS, SVG as well as improved display of fonts with ligatures and complex scripts.
  • Native Web page forms: HTML forms on Web pages now have a native look and feel on Mac OS X and Linux (Gnome) desktops.
  • Color management: (set gfx.color_management.enabled on in about:config and restart the browser to enable.) Firefox can now adjust images with embedded color profiles.
  • Offline support: enables web applications to provide offline functionality (website authors must add support for offline browsing to their site for this feature to be available to users).
  • A more complete overview of Firefox 3 for developers is available for website and add-on developers.
Improved Performance
  • Reliability: A user's bookmarks, history, cookies, and preferences are now stored in a transactionally secure database format which will prevent data loss even if their system crashes.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Speed: Major architectural changes (such as the move to Cairo and a rewrite to how reflowing a page layout works) put foundations in place for major performance tuning which have resulted in speed increases in Beta 2, and will show further gains in future Beta releases.
  • [Improved in Beta 2!] Memory usage: Over 300 individual memory leaks have been plugged, and a new XPCOM cycle collector completely eliminates many more. Developers are continuing to work on optimizing memory use (by releasing cached objects more quickly) and reducing fragmentation. Beta 2 includes over 30 more memory leak fixes, and 11 improvements to our memory footprint.

Firefox 3 Beta Release Notes

Firefox 3 Beta 2 is a developer preview release of Mozilla's next generation Firefox browser and is being made available for testing purposes only.

These beta releases are targeted to Web developers and our testing community to gain feedback before advancing to the next stage in the release process. The final version of Firefox 3 will be released when we qualify the product as fully ready for our users. Users of the latest released version of Firefox should not expect their add-ons to work properly with this beta.

Much of the work leading up to this beta has been around developing the infrastructure to support a bunch of exciting new features. With this second beta, you'll get a taste of what's coming in Firefox 3, but there's still more to come, and much of what you'll see is still a bit rough around the edges.

Please see below for an extensive list of features and enhancements found in Firefox 3 Beta 2, as well as known issues and frequently asked questions.

As always, we appreciate your feedback either through this feedback form or by filing a bug in Bugzilla.

Are the Browser Wars Back?How Mozilla's Firefox trumps Internet Explorer.

I usually don't worry about PC viruses, but last week's Scob attack snapped me awake. The clever multi-stage assault, carried out by alleged Russian spam crime lords, infiltrated corporate Web servers and then used them to infect home computers. The software that Scob (also known as Download.ject) attempted to install on its victims' machines included a keystroke logger.

In less than a day, Internet administrators sterilized the infection by shutting down the Russian server that hosted the spyware. But not before a barrage of scary reports had circled the world. "Users are being told to avoid using Internet Explorer until Microsoft patches a serious security hole," the BBC warned. (Disclosure: Microsoft owns Slate.) CNET reporter Robert Lemos zeroed in on why the attack was so scary. "This time," he wrote, "the flaws affect every user of Internet Explorer." That's about 95 percent of all Net users. No matter how well they had protected themselves against viruses, spyware, and everything else in the past, they were still vulnerable to yet another flaw in Microsoft's browser.

Scob didn't get me, but it was enough to make me ditch Explorer in favor of the much less vulnerable Firefox browser. Firefox is built and distributed free by the Mozilla Organization, a small nonprofit corporation spun off last year from the fast-fading remnants of Netscape, which was absorbed by AOL in 1999. Firefox development and testing are mostly done by about a dozen Mozilla employees, plus a few dozen others at companies like IBM, Sun, and Red Hat. I've been using it for a week now, and I've all but forgotten about Explorer.

You've probably been told to dump Internet Explorer for a Mozilla browser before, by the same propeller-head geek who wants you to delete Windows from your hard drive and install Linux. You've ignored him, and good for you. Microsoft wiped out Netscape in the Browser Wars of the late 1990s not only because the company's management pushed the bounds of business ethics, but also because its engineers built a better browser. When Netscape CEO Jim Barksdale approved the Mozilla project—an open-source browser based on Netscape's code—in 1998, it seemed like a futile act of desperation.

But six years later, the surviving members of the Mozilla insurgency are staging a comeback. The latest version of Firefox, released this Monday, has a more professional look, online help, and a tool that automatically imports your bookmarks, history, site passwords, and other settings from Explorer. Meanwhile, all-conquering Internet Explorer has been stuck in the mud for the past year, as Microsoft stopped delivering new versions. The company now rolls out only an occasional fix as part of its Windows updates. Gates and company won the browser war, so why keep fighting it?

The problem is that hackers continue to find and exploit security holes in Explorer. Many of them take advantage of Explorer's ActiveX system, which lets Web sites download and install software onto visitors' computers, sometimes without users' knowledge. ActiveX was meant to make it easy to add the latest interactive multimedia and other features to sites, but instead it's become a tool for sneaking spyware onto unsuspecting PCs. That's why the U.S. Computer Emergency Readiness Team, a partnership between the tech industry and Homeland Security, recently took the unusual step of advising people to consider switching browsers. Whether or not you do, US-CERT advises increasing your Internet Explorer security settings, per Microsoft's instructions. (Alas, the higher setting disables parts of Slate's interface.) Even if you stop using Explorer, other programs on your computer may still automatically launch it to connect to sites.

Firefox eschews ActiveX and other well-known infection paths. You can configure it to automatically download most files when you click on them, but not .exe files, which are runnable programs. I thought this was a bug before I realized Firefox was saving me from myself, since .exe files could be viruses or stealth installers.

For actual Web surfing, Firefox's interface is familiar enough to Explorer users. There's hardly anything to say about it, which is a compliment. Some interactive features designed exclusively for Internet Explorer won't appear, such as the pop-up menus on Slate's table of contents. A few sites don't display properly, but they're pretty rare. More common are those that stupidly turn non-Explorer browsers away by claiming they're "unsupported." Trusty, useful ActiveX-powered sites such as Windows Update don't load at all, but that's the idea. You can always launch Internet Explorer for those when you need to.

Firefox also adds a productivity feature that Explorer has never gotten around to: tabbed browsing. You can open several Web pages in the same window and flip through them as tabs, similar to those used in some of Windows' dialog boxes. It's tough to understand why tabbed browsing is such an improvement until you've tried it. But if you're in the habit of opening a barrage of news and blog links every morning and then reading them afterward, or clicking on several Google results from the same search, tabbed browsing is an order of magnitude more efficient and organized than popping up a whole new window for each link.

That said, be aware that getting started with Firefox isn't a one-click operation. After installing the browser, you'll need to reinstall plug-ins for some programs, as well as Sun's Java engine for any Java-powered pages. Let me save you an hour of head-scratching here: Save Sun's Java installation file to your desktop, then go back to Firefox's menus and select File -> Open File to install the downloaded .xpi file into the browser. That'll work where other methods fail without explanation.

Once you're set up, it still takes a day or two to get used to the interface and feature differences between Explorer and Firefox, as well as the fact that your favorite sites may look a little different. That's why I left it out of Slate's 20-minute anti-virus plan. But if you've got time to make the switch, the peace of mind is worth it. Mozilla also makes a free e-mail program called Thunderbird and a calendar tool called Sunbird, if you want to avoid using Outlook and Outlook Express, two other virus carriers. They're nowhere near as feature-packed as Outlook, but the e-mail client includes a spam filter that works pretty well after you train it on four or five thousand messages—in my case, one week's mail.

Will Firefox make your computer hackproof? Even Mozilla's spokespeople stress that no software can be guaranteed to be safe, and that Firefox's XPInstall system could conceivably be tricked into installing a keystroke logger instead of Sun's Java engine. But for now, there's safety in numbers—the lack of them, that is. Internet Explorer is used by 95 percent of the world. Firefox's fan base adds up to 2 or 3 percent at most. Which browser do you think the Russian hackers are busily trying to break into again?

Jumat, 15 Agustus 2008


Prof. Dr. H. Nasaruddin Umar, M.A.

Musibah ada di mana-mana dan bisa terjadi kapan saja. Yang penting bagi kita ialah bagaimana menyikapi musibah itu seandainya ia datang menimpa kita atau anggota keluarga kita. Misalnya hujan. Curah hujan yang melebihi batas normal kadang-kadang tidak lagi berfungsi sebagai rahmat, tetapi bisa menjadi suatu laknat, apalagi jika mendatangkan banjir. Dengan demikian, ini bisa disebut dengan musibah kecil. Seperti kita tahu, musibah atau kesulitan-kesulitan hidup itu sisi lain dari kehendak Tuhan untuk menyapa hamba-Nya. Seolah-olah Allah merindukan hamba-Nya, sehingga Dia merindukan mereka dalam bentuk musibah. Musibah adalah sebentuk surat cinta Tuhan kepada kekasih-Nya.

Kenapa musibah disebut surat cinta? Karena mungkin pada suatu saat, seseorang itu tidak sanggup untuk mendekati Tuhan, terlena dengan kemewahan duniawi yang ada pada dirinya, sehingga tertutup pintu batinnya, tidak lagi sensitif dan tidak lagi ada kerinduan terhadap Tuhannya. Seringkali kerinduan terhadap Tuhan itu muncul manakala dipancing oleh hadirnya musibah. Seringkali tanpa musibah, seseorang lupa terhadap Allah Swt. Pengalaman-pengalaman yang mengecewakan, seperti adanya gangguan-gangguan yang menghambat normalitas kehidupan kita, harus dimaknai bahwa ini adalah cara Tuhan untuk mengingatkan kita.

Allah berfirman: Hai orang-orang yang beriman, bertakwalah kepada Allah sebenar-benar takwa kepada-Nya; dan janganlah sekali-kali kamu mati melainkan dalam keadaan beragama Islam. (QS. Ali Imrân [3]: 102)

Ayat ini merupakan panggilan khusus untuk orang yang beriman. Mereka diminta untuk bertakwa dengan sebenar-benarnya takwa, dengan puncak takwa. Meskipun di dalam ayat lain dikatakan, "Bertakwalah kepada Allah sebatas kemampuanmu." (QS. At-Taghabûn [64]: 16). Allah Maha adil. Kalau seandainya standar ketakwaan itu memakai standar ketakwaan Rasulullah, atau para aulia, kita sebagai orang awam tentu sulit untuk mencapainya. Tetapi Allah Mahatahu bahwa tidak semua hamba-Nya sama pengalaman batinnya dan tingkat makrifahnya.

Apa perbedaan ayat pertama dan ayat kedua?

Ayat pertama meminta kita untuk bersikap maksimal mewujudkan ketakwaan itu di dalam diri kita. Tetapi kalau kita sudah berusaha, dan ternyata masih jauh dari standar ketakwaan itu, jangan khawatir karena ada firman Allah yang lain, "Bertakwalah sebatas kemampuanmu." Jangan berkecil hati kalau ketakwaan kita tidak bisa menyamai Rasulullah dan para wali. Yang penting kita sudah berusaha sekuat kemampuan kita, kemudian terimalah apa adanya diri kita.

Apa yang dimaksud dengan takwa?

Banyak orang mengartikan takwa sebagai takut terhadap Allah. Sebetulnya terjemahan ini tidak sepenuhnya tepat. Memang salah satu pengertian takwa adalah takut, tapi itu hanya kira-kira 30% benarnya. Takut hanya salah satu komponen dari takwa, tetapi komponen terbesarnya bukan takut. Komponen yang sangat penting dari takwa adalah cinta kepada Allah. Di kalangan sufi, takwa itu diartikan dengan cinta terhadap Allah. Di kalangan fukaha, takwa itu adalah takut terhadap Allah. Kombinasi antara takwa dan takut, itulah pengertian takwa yang ideal bagi kita.

Sesungguhnya Allah Swt. bukanlah sosok yang sangat mengerikan sehingga kita harus takut terhadap-Nya. Melainkan Allah Swt. adalah sosok yang Mahaindah untuk dicintai, sosok yang Maha Pengasih, sosok yang Mahalembut. Dengan demikian, takwa itu di satu sisi kita takut dan segan kepada Allah, di sisi lain, kita mencintai-Nya.

Miniatur sikap kita terhadap Allah itu persis sikap kita terhadap kedua orang tua kita. Di satu sisi kita segan dan takut terhadap orang tua, pada sisi lain kita juga butuh dan cinta terhadap mereka. Sekalipun kita dimarahi, sekalipun kita dipukul, tetap orang yang paling kita cintai adalah kedua orang tua kita. Sekalipun Tuhan menurunkan musibah, sekalipun Tuhan sering menguji kita, tetapi yang kita cintai hanya Allah Swt. Inilah pengertian kongkret yang bisa kita ukur dari pengertian takwa.

Bertakwalah kepada Allah Swt., artinya takutilah dan cintailah Allah Swt. Kadang-kadang Allah tampil sebagai sosok yang Mahabesar untuk ditakuti, terutama bagi para pendosa. Bagi orang yang baru saja melakukan dosa, di situ Tuhan akan tampil sebagai Yang Maha adil, Yang Maha Penghukum, bahkan Yang Maha Penyiksa, sehingga orang yang berdosa menjadi ciut nyalinya dan tidak berani lagi melakukan dosa.

Tapi Allah Swt. akan tampil sebagai sosok yang Maha Mencinta di hadapan orang yang melakukan ibadah. Orang yang melakukan ibadah dan kebaikan-kebaikan dengan ikhlas, tidak usah takut terhadap Allah. Baginya, yang paling tepat adalah mencintai Allah.

Siapapun orang yang beriman, yang berdosa pasti akan merasa takut kepada Allah. Dan siapapun orang yang beriman, yang telah beribadah dengan sungguh-sungguh dan ikhlas, pasti ada muncul rasa cinta di dalam dirinya kepada Allah dan harapan yang besar untuk mendapatkan cinta-Nya. Dengan demikian, pola relasi manusia dan Tuhan adalah pola relasi takut dan cinta. Inilah Islam.

Agama-agama lain tunggal pola relasinya, dan umumnya mengandalkan pola relasi takut kepada Tuhannya atau dewa-dewanya. Itulah sebabnya dalam agama lain diperlukan mediasi antara manusia dan Tuhannya atau dewanya. Bahkan ada yang menggambarkan dewanya dengan gambaran yang mengerikan. Kalau perlu dibuatkan patungnya dengan sosok yang besar, wajah yang angker, taringnya mencuat, bahkan membawa alat pemukul (gada). Supaya apa? Itu sebagai mediasi agar jiwa si penyembah takut kepada yang disembahnya. Semakin takut, semakin tinggi kedekatannya dengan Tuhan. Semakin takut, semakin hebat ibadahnya.

Dalam Islam tidak mesti seperti itu. Allah Swt. bukan sosok yang Maha Mengerikan untuk ditakuti, tapi lebih menonjol sebagai Tuhan Maha Penyayang untuk dicintai. Kalau pola relasi kita itu takut, kita akan menggambarkan Tuhan itu transenden, jauh sekali. Tapi kalau pola relasi cinta yang kita bangun, seolah-olah Tuhan itu amat dekat dengan diri kita. Firman Allah dalam Alquran: "Sesungguhnya Aku lebih dekat kepadanya daripada urat lehernya sendiri." (QS. Qâf [50]: 16)

Di kalangan sufi sering muncul pertanyaan, apakah Tuhan berada dalam diriku ataukah aku berada dalam diri Tuhan? Begitu dekatnya Tuhan dengan hamba, dan kedekatan ini polanya adalah relasi cinta. Hemat saya, inilah pola yang paling tepat bagi kita untuk mendekati Tuhan, yaitu pola relasi cinta. Pola relasi takut, bawaannya adalah formalitas, kering, dan kaku, serta sangat dipengaruhi oleh mood. Tapi pola relasi cinta lebih permanen sifatnya, segar, damai, dan menjanjikan harapan yang indah.

Maka berusahalah untuk lebih mencintai Tuhan, cinta dan cinta kepada Tuhan. Itulah takwa. Sehingga kalau berdoa pun, doanya seperti kaum sufi, "Ya Allah, aku menyembah Engkau bukan karena mengharap surga-Mu, dan aku meninggalkan maksiat bukan karena takut neraka-Mu. Masukkan aku ke neraka-Mu kalau aku menyembah-Mu karena takut neraka. Jauhkan aku dari surga-Mu jika aku menyembah-Mu karena ingin surga. Aku menyembah kepada-Mu, ya Allah, semata-mata karena cintaku yang sangat dalam kepada-Mu."

Luar biasa. Inilah nanti yang memancar dampaknya dalam masyarakat. Apapun yang kita lakukan, penuh dengan kedamaian. Termasuk saat tertimpa musibah atau kesedihan pun, hati kita akan tetap tenang dan ikhlas. Berjumpa dengan saudara, dengan kawan, tersenyum. Damai bawaannya. Kalau cinta terhadap Tuhan membara dalam diri setiap hamba, maka kedamaian antar sesama manusia pun akan tercipta. Insya Allah.

hakekat takwa


Takwa sangat penting dan dibutuhkan dalam setiap kehidupan seorang muslim. Namun masih banyak yang belum mengetahui hakekatnya. Setiap jum’at para khotib menyerukan takwa dan para makmumpun mendengarnya berulang-ulang kali. Namun yang mereka dengar terkadang tidak difahami dengan benar dan pas.Pengertian Takwa.Untuk mengenal hakekat takwa tentunya harus kembali kepada bahasa Arab, karena kata tersebut memang berasal darinya. Kata takwa (التَّقْوَى) dalam etimologi bahasa Arab berasal dari kata kerja (وَقَى) yang memiliki pengertian menutupi, menjaga, berhati-hati dan berlindung. Oleh karena itu imam Al Ashfahani menyatakan: Takwa adalah menjadikan jiwa berada dalam perlindungan dari sesuatu yang ditakuti, kemudian rasa takut juga dinamakan takwa. Sehingga takwa dalam istilah syar’I adalah menjaga diri dari perbuatan dosa.Dengan demikian maka bertakwa kepada Allah adalah rasa takut kepadaNya dan menjauhi kemurkaanNya. Seakan-akan kita berlindung dari kemarahan dan siksaanNya dengan mentaatiNya dan mencari keridhoanNya.Takwa merupakan ikatan yang mengikat jiwa agar tidak lepas control mengikuti keinginan dan hawa nafsunya. Dengan ketakwaan seseorang dapat menjaga dan mengontrol etika dan budi pekertinya dalam detiap saat kehidupannya karena ketakwaan pada hakekatnya adalah muroqabah dan berusaha keras mencapai keridhoan Allah serta takut dari adzabNya.Sangat pas sekali definisi para ulama yang menyatakan ketakwaan seorang hamba kepada Allah adalah dengan menjadikan benteng perlindungan diantara dia dengan yang ditakuti dari kemurkaan dan kemarahan Allah dengan melakukan ketaatan dan menjauhi kemaksiatan.Berikut ini beberapa ungkapan para ulama salaf dalam menjelaskan pengertian takwa:1. Kholifah yang mulia Umar bin Al Khothob pernah bertanya kepada Ubai bin Ka’ab tentang takwa. Ubai bertanya: Wahai amirul mukminin, Apakah engkau pernah melewati jalanan penuh duri? Beliau menjawab: Ya. Ubai berkata lagi: Apa yang engkau lakukan? Umar menjawab: Saya teliti dengan seksama dan saya lihat tempat berpijak kedua telapak kakiku. Saya majukan satu kaki dan mundurkan yang lainnya khawatir terkena duri. Ubai menyatakan: Itulah takwa.[1]2. Kholifah Umar bin Al Khothob pernah berkata: Tidak sampai seorang hamba kepada hakekat takwa hingga meninggalkan keraguan yang ada dihatinya.3. kholifah Ali bin Abi Tholib pernah ditanya tentang takwa, lalu beliau menjawab: Takut kepada Allah, beramal dengan wahyu (Al Qur’an dan Sunnah) dan ridho dengan sedikit serta bersiap-siap untuk menhadapi hari kiamat.4. Sahabat Ibnu Abas menyatakan: Orang yang bertakwa adalah orang yang takut dari Allah dan siksaanNya.5. Tholq bin Habib berkata: takwa adalah beramal ketaatan kepada Allah diatas cahaya dari Allah karena mengharap pahalaNya dan meninggalkan kemaksiatan diatas cahaya dari Allah karena takut siksaanNya6. ibnu Mas’ud menafsirkan firman Allah: اتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ حَقَّ تُقَاتِهِ dengan menyatakan: Taat tanpa bermaksiat dan ingat Allah tanpa melupakannya dan bersyukur.Takwa ada dikalbu.Takwa adalah amalan hati (kalbu) dan tempatnya di kalbu, dengan dasar firman Allah Ta’ala:Demikianlah (perintah Allah). Dan barangsiapa mengagungkan syi’ar-syi’ar Allah, maka sesungguhnya itu timbul dari ketaqwaan hati. (QS. 22:32) . dalam ayat ini takwa di sandarkan kepada hati, karena hakekat takwa ada dihati. Demikian juga firman Allah:Sesungguhnya orang-orang yang merendahkan suaranya di sisi Rasulullah mereka itulah orang-orang yang telah diuji hati mereka oleh Allah untuk bertaqwa. (QS. 49:3)Sedangkan dalil dari hadits Nabi n tentang hal ini adalah sabda beliau: التَّقْوَى هَهُنَا التَّقْوَى هَهُنَا التَّقْوَى هَهُنَا ويُشِيْرُ إِلَى صَدْرِهِ [ثَلاَثَ مَرَّاتٍ] بِحَسْبِ امْرِىءٍ مِنَ الشَّرِّ أَنْ يَحْقِرَ أَخَاهُ الْمُسْلِمَ كُلُّ اْلمُسْلِمِ عَلَى الْمُسْلِمِ حَرَامٌ دَمُّهُ وَعِرْضُهُ Takwa itu disini! Takwa itu disini! Takwa itu disini! –dan beliau mengisyaratkan ke dadanya (Tiga kali). Cukuplah bagi seorang telah berbuat jelek dengan merendahkan saudara muslimnya. Setiap muslim diharamkan atas muslim lainnya dalam darah, kehormatan dan hartanya. (HR Al Bukhori dan Muslim ). Juga hadits Qudsi yang masyhur dan panjang dari sahabat Abu Dzar. Diantara isinya adalah:يَا عِبَادِي لَوْ أَنَّ أَوَّلَكُمْ وَآخِرَكُمْ وَإِنْسَكُمْ وَجِنَّكُمْ كَانُوا عَلَى أَتْقَى قَلْبِ رَجُلٍ وَاحِدٍ مِنْكُمْ مَا زَادَ ذَلِكَ فِي مُلْكِي شَيْئًا Wahai hambaKu, seandainya seluruh kalian yang terdahulu dan yang akan datang, manusia dan jin seluruhnya berada pada ketakwaan hati seorang dari kalian tentulah tidak menambah hal itu sedikitpun dari kekuasaanKu. (HR Muslim)Dalam hadits ini ketakwaan disandarkan kepada tempatnya yaitu kalbu. Namun walaupun ketakwaan adalah amalan hati dan adanya dihati, tetap saja harus dibuktikan dan dinyatakan dengan amalan anggota tubuh. Siapa yang mengklaim bertakwa sedangkan amalannya menyelisihi perkataannya maka ia telah berdusta.Ketakwaan ini berbeda-beda sesuai kemampuan yang dimiliki setiap individu, sebagaimana firman Allah :فاتّقوا اللّهَ ما استَطَعتُمBertakwalah kepada Allah semampu kalian.Mudah-mudahan Allah memberikan kepada kita ketakwaan yang sempurna.

[1] Al Jaami’ Liahkam Al Qur’an karya Al Qurthubi 1/162

Jumat, 11 Juli 2008

Windows Vista

Vista Hardware Support

To help buyers identify hardware suitable for running Vista, Microsoft has a two-tier certification and logo program. The "Works with Windows Vista" logo provides assurance of basic Vista compatibility, and "Certified for Windows Vista" indicates that products specifically enable, or take advantage of, Vista features (such as Windows Aero). SLIDESHOW (74) 

Slideshow | All Shots

Vista supports new hardware in a variety of ways. The OS includes DirectX 10, supporting geometry shaders, graphics memory paging, graphics hardware virtualization, and other features that should enable ever-more-photorealistic games and simulations. (For our review of the first graphics chip and card ready to take advantage of DX10, go to go.pcmag.com/geforce8800.) Audio and printer driver architecture has changed as well, again with the goal of enhancing performance and stability. Vista also offers improved support for new varieties of peripherals and components, including Blu-ray and HD DVD devices.

Laptop and Tablet PC users get new goodies, too, without having to buy separate versions. New Tablet features include touch-screen support, improved pen navigation, gestures, and personalized handwriting recognition. And Media Center is now integral rather than packaged as a separate OS edition.

Vista's intriguing technology called SideShow lets devices with "auxiliary screens" show snippets of pertinent information even when the system isn't powered on. Imagine the Caller ID display on the outside of a clamshell cell phone, only more powerful and flexible. We're waiting for hardware that will let us test SideShow firsthand

from : http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,2089594,00.asp